This transformation conception may explain the resolution of harsh self-criticism, a central clinical feature of BPD [48, 51,52,53]. Whelton and Greenberg (2005) proposed a paradigm of studying emotion transformation related to self-criticism using the empty-chair dialogue. Patients criticized themselves in a structured assessment procedure using imaginative and emotion-eliciting enactment tasks. It appeared that the depressive persons presented more self-contemptuousness in their self-criticism, compared to controls and presented with higher levels of shame, sadness and emotional collapse, along with less pride . This study was on 45 undergraduates presenting with or without anger problems, using the same paradigm . What differentiated the two groups was the presence of self-contemptuousness, t (1, 43) = 1.91, p < .05) associated with the self-criticism, along with the absence of the existential need in the anger-prone individuals. This means that for anger-prone participants - who share this clinical feature to some extent with BPD - self-criticism is particularly harmful to the emotion transformation when associated with self-contemptuousness. We may therefore assume that decrease in self-contemptuousness - and possibly increase in its antidote, self-compassion - and increase in emotion flexibility are markers of productive change in treatment.
For the clients which have BPD, you can pick a main theme for every single individual, that’s contained in over sixty% of your specific relationship symptoms [67, 68]
Emotion transformation related to self-criticism is underpinned by biological changes. Using standardized stimuli, Longe et al. (2010) showed in a female student sample (N = 17) a blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation (intra-subject comparison to a neutral condition at the level p < .05 corrected) in the left pre-frontal cortex (PFC; Brodman area (BA) 45), in the lateral orbito-frontal cortex (OFC; BA 47), in the left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) and in the inferior and middle temporal gyrus (BA 20 and 21, including the lingual gyrus, BA 19) . The hyperactivity in pre-orbito-frontal and orbito-frontal regions associated with self-criticism in this study was interpreted as linked with the inhibitory behavior known to be associated with activation of the lateral PFC . Brain activity in the striatum has been associated with self-punishing emotions of self-criticism , such as shame, anger about the self and self-contemptuousness . In addition, some regions of the insula-basal ganglia networks are known to be associated with processing of disgust . In an fMRI study using individualized self-critical stimuli (which were previously selected based on a large set of words), Doerig and colleagues (2013) showed bilateral insula activation, along with activations in left hippocampus and amygdalar formations, interpreted as regions recruited in emotion processing of self-critical stimuli . More research is needed to understand change in self-contemptuousness and its neuronal substrates over the course of treatment for BPD, when an individualized measurement method is applied.
Change in brand new person’s socio-intellectual or mentalizing capacities is actually chatted about as an excellent putative system of improvement in the treating BPD [52, 59, 60]. Levy and you may associates (2006) checked-out improvement in about three kinds of therapy to have BPD -– TFP, DBT and you will supportive treatment – and discovered you to simply TFP is actually on the an increase in mentalizing features, and additionally growth of more secure attachment habits in some patients in this category . Uniform performance was showed by the Fischer-Kern and you can colleagues (get a hold of also de Meulemeester mais aussi al. ; Maillard et al. blackfling mobile, ). Almost every other studies have underlined the brand new moderating foundation from mentalizing capabilities to own outcome for several kinds of PD [64, 65]. To your training, no studies have shown mediation for changes in socio-cognitive handling in treatments for BPD.
Based on Luborsky (1998), the brand new pervasiveness away from a good CCRT ‘s the degree of generality out of a design round the specific relationship periods and you may specific affairs
One method to investigate the core interpersonal contents related with attachment figures (i.e., “hot” stimuli), again formulated from an individualized perspective, is the core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT ). A CCRT is a formulation composed by a patient’s wish (e.g., to be close, to be treated harshly), the anticipated response of the other/the object (e.g., to facilitate one’s independence, to be harsh) and the response of the self (e.g., to feel understood, to be frustrated). After treatment, it is expected that pervasiveness related to the core theme decreases. Luborsky (1998) demonstrated in 33 patients undergoing psychodynamic psychotherapy – although not patients with BPD – a pre-post decrease in pervasiveness over time (F (1, 32) = 7.4, p < .01), which was particularly strong for the category of the negative response of the self. This decrease correlated with symptom change at the end of treatment . Therapy studies in patients with BPD are needed, to test the role of decrease in CCRT pervasiveness over time.